Type 540 Pipeline Steam Heater 

Type 540 Pipeline Steam Heaters are used in a wide variety of liquid heating applications. Heating takes place directly in the pipeline. Liquid heating capacities range from 4 gpm to over 1600 gpm. When in operation, there is a negligible liquid side pressure drop through the heater. The straight through inline design of the Type 540 Pipeline Heater accommodates slurries as well as clean liquids. Some typical applications include hot water supply stations, preheating of tank washdown liquid, plant or shipboard heating, inline cooking, and slurry heating. Operation: Steam under pressure enters the heater and is injected through a perforated combining tube directly into the aqueous liquid stream to be heated. Vigorous mixing of the steam and liquid takes place in the combining tube where the steam is condensed and heated liquid is discharged from the heater. For proper operation, the steam pressure should be at least 15 psi greater than the liquid inlet pressure. 

CONSTRUCTION  
The Type 540 Pipeline Heater consists of a steam chamber and a combining tube. The heater is available in almost any material including carbon steel, stainless steel, Monel, Hastelloy, and titanium. Connections are typically ANSI flanged, but the unit can be supplied with threaded, butt weld, or sanitary connections as required. See page 9 of this bulletin for the Type 540S Sanitary Pipeline Heater.


INSTALLATION / MAINTENANCE:  
The Type 540 Pipeline Heater may be installed in any horizontal or upward flowing vertical position in relation to the liquid flow direction. Isolation valves and pressure gauges are recommended on the steam and liquid inlet lines. The steam isolation valve must be located so that any liquid or steam line condensate drains toward the heater. A minimum straight length of five inlet pipe diameters upstream of the heater is required for liquid flow straightening. A temperature gauge is recommended in the discharge line for visual indication. At the outlet a minimum of eight pipe diameters is recommended before the point of use. There are no moving parts, and therefore no routine maintenance is required. Occasional cleaning of the combining tube may be required if the application involves slurries or cooking stuffs. Performance Limits:




DATA REQUIRED FOR SIZING  


LIMITATIONS:  
1. The final water temperature must be a minimum of 20° F below saturation at Pw.  
2. ΔP must be a minimum of 15 psi, or consult the factory.  
SIZING EQUATIONS:  
1. Ws = 0.46(Qs)(AT).  
2. If Ps > 1.8 Pw, then M = (Ps + 13) / Ws.  
3. If Ps < 1.8 Pw, then M =  V(386 AP)(Pw + 15) / Ws. 



Sizing Example  Problem:  
A pipeline heater is required to heat 50 gpm of 35 psig pressure water from 80° F to 150° F. There are two steam pressure sources available, 60 psig and 100 psig steam.  
Solution:  
Step 1 Calculate the required steam flow using Sizing Equation #1. Ws = 0.46(Qs)( ΔT) = 0.46 (50 gpm)(70° F) = 1610 #/hr.  
Step 2 Determine which equation to use for calculating M. 1.8(Pw) = (1.8)(35) = 63 psig.  
Use Sizing Equation #3 if 60 psig pressure steam is to be used, or use Sizing Equation #2 if 100 psig steam is to be used.  
For 60 psig steam, M = (386 x 25)(35 + 15) / 1610 = 0.431.  
A calculated value of M = 0.431 corresponds to a 1/2" heater in Table 1. Checking flow ranges, a flow of 50 gpm would be too high for a 1/2"  
Try 100 psig pressure steam using Sizing Equation #2 since 100 psig is greater than 63 psig. M = (100 + 13) / 1610 = 0.0702.  
From Sizing Table 1, choose the heater size with the next lowest M value. For a 11/2" unit, M =.0662 and 50 gpm is within the acceptable flow range.  
Use a 11/2" Type 540 Pipeline Heater to heat 50 gpm of water from 80° F to 150° F, using 1610 #/hr of 100 psig pressure steam.  
Note:  
1 Pipeline sizes may need to be larger than the unit size to prevent excessive pipe pressure losses. 

2. Consult the factory when the required water rates fall outside the flow range of the calculated heater.  
Dimensional Information:  


* Dimension D varies with the application. The dimension in the table is a typical overall length.  
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